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Detailed History of the Air Intelligence Agency AIA    SOURCE

AIA in the 1940s

1948: 20 Oct-The United States Air Force Security Service (USAFSS) established at Arlington Hall Va

On 24 May 1948, Headquarters, United States Air Force (HQ USAF) informally activated the Air Force Security Group (AFSG) in the Office of the Intelligence Requirements Division, Directorate of Intelligence, Headquarters USAF, in the Pentagon and designated Major Idris J. Jones, an Air Force officer, to head the Group. The AFSG was formally established in the Directorate of Intelligence, HQ USAF, on 23 June 1948, with a cadre of eleven officers and some clerical enlisted personnel on loan from the Army Security Agency. On 20 October 1948, the United States Air Force Security Service (USAFSS), the forerunner of the Air Intelligence Agency, was established at Arlington Hall Station, Va., as a major air command to perform cryptologic and communications security missions for the Air Force. Colonel Roy H. Lynn was assigned as the first USAFSS Commander effective 20 October 1948.

1949 -The United States Air Force Security Service received its first subordinate units on 1 February 1949, when the 1st Radio Squadron, Mobile in Japan, the 2d Radio Squadron, Mobile in Germany, the 8th Radio Squadron, Mobile at Vint Hill Farms, Va., and the 136th Radio Security Detachment in upper New York state, along with assigned personnel, were transferred to the command from the Army Security Agency. In March 1949, on authority of a signed agreement with the U.S. Army, HQ USAF assigned Capt David D. Morris, an Air Force officer, to the Army Special Security Office at HQ United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE). About two and one-half months later, in June 1949, HQ USAFSS assigned Capt Campbell Y. Jackson to HQ USAFE as a Security Service Liaison Officer. Those assignments represented the first use of Air Force personnel in the previously all-Army Special Security Office system. The transfer of HQ USAFSS from Arlington Hall Station, Va., to Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, was effective with transfer of the morning reports on 18 April 1949. On 29 May 1949, Secretary of Defense Louis Johnson issued a Memo to the Joint Chiefs of Staff announcing the establishment of a unified cryptologic organization -- the Armed Forces Security Agency -- (which later became the National Security Agency (NSA) in October 1952) for the conduct of Intelligence and communications security COMSEC) activities within the National Military Establishment. The USAFSS Photography Laboratory had its beginning in July 1949 with the assignment of a master sergeant and a corporal. On 7 October 1949, a photo officer was assigned. By 30 June 1950, Colonel Roy H. Lynn was USAFSS' first commander. USAFSS direction finding operators worked with equipment such as this during the early years. This DF position was located at Vint Hill Farms Station, in 1949.

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AIA in the 1950s

1950 - The USAFSS concept and plan for production of tactical area intelligence was approved by the Office of the Secretary of Defense and the Vice Chief of Staff, USAF, in April 1950.
Sergeant Christena Ogle, the first Women's Air Force (WAF) to join USAFSS, was assigned to the Command on 2 April 1950 for duty in the Directorate of Security. Major Corinne E. Edwards became the Command's first WAF officer on 1 May 1950 and was assigned as the Assistant Adjutant General. In May 1950, USAFSS attempted to get the Director of Intelligence at HQ USAF to support the publication of an Air Force regulation which would specify that USAFSS was responsible for the production of Intelligence of interest to the Air Force and that the USAFSS units would be attached to the air commanders to meet tactical intelligence requirements. (Such a regulation was never published.) In June 1950, the Airways and Air Communications Service (later the Air Force Communications Command) transferred to USAFSS the responsibility for service testing USAF cryptological equipment, systems, and devices. Airways and Air Communications Service also transferred the personnel and spaces authorized to perform this function. The USAFSS Flight Section was organized on 1 September 1950 with the assignment of three administrative aircraft -- two C-47s and one B-25 -- and nine personnel. In November 1950, USAFSS established a detachment at Pyongyang, Korea (Detachment C, 1st Radio Squadron, Mobile), to provide support to USAF organizations engaged in the Korean War.

Personnel of the Headquarters USAFSS Operations Production Division, Brooks AFB, prepare a map depicting the Eurasian landmass, 1950. 1951 - USAFSS gained its first units above squadron level with the activation of the 6910th Security Group at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, on 23 May 1951 and the 6920th Security Group at Johnson AB, Japan, on 1 September 1951. The 6910th Security Group was moved to Germany in July 1951 with the Group Headquarters going to Wiesbaden and Group Operations going to Darmstadt. Brigadier General (later Lieutenant General) Roy H. Lynn, who served as the first USAFSS Commander, returned as the organization's third commander effective 22 February 1951. There were two incidents in 1951 in which support provided by USAFSS units in Korea resulted in major U.S. air victories. The most significant of the two occurred on 29 November 1951 when a small USAFSS detachment provided 5th Air Force with tactical support concerning the North Korean Air Force which contributed directly to the largest single U.S. air victory of the war up to that point. In a single air-to-air engagement, F-86s from the USAF fighter wing at Inchon shot down eleven North Korean aircraft and damaged four more. The U.S. sustained only one slightly damaged F-86. These incidents were aptly termed "turkey shoots" by U.S. pilots. USAFSS senior commanders pose with world renowed cyrptologist William Friedman (in suit, third from left) at Landsberg Air Base, Germany, 23 November 1951. (Photo courtesy of Brig. Gen. Hetherington, Ret.) USAFSS provided Intelligence support at the Kaesong truce meetings which began on 10 July 1951 and dragged on for more than two years until a truce was signed on 27 July 1953. During those two years, intelligence was provided to Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, who headed the U. S. delegation to the conference. The first Annual USAFSS Commanders' Conference was held at USAFSS headquarters from 12-16 November 1951. 1952 - On 24 October 1952, National Security Council Directive No. 9 was revised. It redesignated the Armed Forces Security Agency (AFSA) as the National Security Agency (NSA), delegated control of resources of the Department of Defense (DoD) to the Director of NSA (DIRNSA), designated DoD as the executive agent of the Government for SIGINT information, and authorized DIRNSA to delegate control for close support purposes.

Intelligence operators of the 37th Radio Squadron Mobile, RAF Station, Kirknewton, Scotland In March 1952, HQ USAF consolidated the Security Service Liaison Office and the major command (MAJCOM) Special Security Office activities into an Air Force Special Security Office system. The responsibility for the development and operation of the Air Force Special Security Office System was delegated to USAFSS in April 1952. At the time, the consolidated system consisted of nineteen authorized offices worldwide. The USAFSS emblem was approved in August 1952 after a command-wide contest to select a winning entry. It was designed by Airman Second Class William Rogers. The motto, Freedom Through Vigilance, was adopted in January 1964. The United States Air Force Security Service flew its first Airborne Reconnaissance Program test mission in the Pacific on 18 April 1952 using a converted B-29 aircraft. The aircraft was later sent to Europe for additional testing before commencing regular operational missions in the Pacific in March 1954. The United States Air Force Security Service reorganized to operate with the procedural functions, authorities, and responsibilities of a major Air Force command, which it had been since its activation on 20 October 1948, but within policy constraints required by tri-service relationships.

1953 - Brigadier General (later Major General) Harold H. Bassett replaced Major General Roy H. Lynn as Commander effective 14 February 1953. On 1 July 1953, the 6901st Special Communications Center was activated at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, to perform the operational functions previously handled by the Analysis and Disseminations Divisions, Deputy Chief of Staff/ Operations, HQ USAFSS. Simultaneous with establishment of the 6901st Special Communications Center on 1 July 1953, the Air Force Communications Security Center was established to take over the communications security operational functions of DCS/Operations. Two USAFSS airmen -- Staff Sergeant Donald G. Hill and Air Second Class Earl W. Radlein, Jr. -- were presumed killed on 29 July 1953 when the RB-50G-2 aircraft of the 343d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron on which they were serving was shot down off the Soviet coast near Vladivostok. This marked the first loss of USAFSS airborne operators as a result of hostile action. Headquarters USAFSS closed out operations at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, effective 31 July 1953 and began operations from its new headquarters building at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. A C-47 "Bluesky" Aircraft. Manned by USAFSS crews the platform began experimental collection operations over Korea in early 1953.

The move into the newly constructed Headquarters building at Kelly Air Force Base was accomplished during the first week in August 1953. On 8 August 1953, the 6901st Special Communications Center was moved from Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, to "Security Hill" at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, and renamed the Air Force Special Communications Center. Initially, the mission of the Air Force Special Communications Center was: (1) producing and disseminating long-term intelligence data; (2) operating the USAFSS School for training intelligence specialists; (3) providing technical guidance and operational assistance to USAFSS field units; (4) assisting the USAFSS Deputy Chief of Staff/Operations to develop and test operational procedures and techniques for implementing the USAFSS program for providin intelligence support for the Air Force; and (5) directing and monitoring operation of the Special Security Office system. The 6900th Security Wing was activated at Landsberg Air Base, Germany, on 1 August 1953 as an intermediate Headquarters (numbered Air Force equivalent) to plan, coordinate, and direct the activities of all USAFSS units in Europe. The 6920th Security Group at Johnson Air Base, Japan, provided the same support to USAFSS units in the Pacific. The USAFSS School was activated at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, on 1 August 1953 and placed under the operational control of the Air Force Special Communications Center. One of the major functions of the school was to train personnel in intelligence duties.

1954 - In March 1954, USAFSS initiated a new concept in reconnaissance collection by implementing its Airborne Reconnaissance Program effort. One RB-29 began flying missions in the Far East in April 1954. This was the only aircraft, Airmen assigned to the 6920th Security Group, Johnson, Air Base, Japan repair radios--1953. which USAFSS already had jurisdiction over, engaged in the Airborne Reconnaissance Program effort at that time; however, USAFSS had personnel serving as operators aboard 343d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron RB-50G ECM aircraft. In March 1954, the USAFSS Commander submitted tentative plans for expansion of processing activities at the squadron level and for direct reporting to the using commands. In June 1954, the point of analysis and reporting concept was implemented on a test basis at the 6901st Special Communications Center in Europe (Germany) and the 6902d Special Communications Center in the Pacific (Japan). In late August 1954, the point of intercept analysis and reporting concept was approved. The objective was to facilitate a direct and timely response to the requirements of military commands and other organizations receiving intelligence support. By the end of 1954, the technical training function and oversight of the Special Security Office system had been transferred from the Air Force Special Communications Center to HQ USAFSS.

1955 - USAFSS deployed the 6926th Radio Squadron, Mobile, to Japan to participate in Project GRAYBACK.

1956 - The USAFSS developed a new concept of mobile operations to satisfy increased tasking for tactical support during contingencies. The first deployment came in January 1957 in response to the unstable situation in the Middle-East in late 1956 and early 1957. The Air Force Communications Security Center was deactivated on 1 July 1956 and its personnel and communications security monitoring, reporting and management mission became a part of the Air Force Special Communications Center. This change reflected an effort to decrease management overhead.

1957 - RB-50 aircraft were assigned to the Airborne Reconnaissance Program. There were five RB-50s in Europe and five in the Pacific. Major General (later Lieutenant General) Gordon A. Blake replaced Major General H. H. Bassett as Commander effective 4 January 1957. The USAFSS School was moved from Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, to March Air Force Base, California, on 1 July 1957.

1958 - A major milestone in the history of USAFSS occurred on 1 July 1958 when the command assumed control of several bases throughout the world where its units had previously been tenants. Included were: Misawa Air Base, Japan; San Vito Air Station (AS), Italy; Iraklion AS, Crete; Royal Air Force (RAF) Station Chicksands, United Kingdom; Karamursel AS, Turkey, Wakkanai AS, Japan; and Shu Lin Kou AS, Taiwan. Later that year, Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, was added to the list. Through coordination with Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) in early 1958, USAFSS increased its airborne capability in Korea by adding three more C-47s to the Blue Sky effort, for a total of four platforms. Each C-47 staged from Osan AB, Korea. They flew an average of 60 hours each month. During 1960, the project name was changed from Blue Sky to Rose Bowl. This "primitive," but effective, Airborne Reconnaissance Program operation continued into 1962 when the C-130s staging from Yokota AB, Japan, were able to provide the necessary support of Korea and the C-47s were phased out. C-130s were sent to Europe to replace the RB-50s in the Airborne Reconnaissance Program effort. The first two arrived in Germany during July 1958. The USAFSS School was moved from March Air Force Base, California, to Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, on 15 October 1958. The 6920th Security Wing (later redesignated HQ Pacific Air Forces Security Region) was moved from Shiroi Air Base, Japan, to Wheeler Air Force Base, Hawaii, on 1 November 1958. On 26 August 1958, USAFSS sent a unit to Taiwan to augment the 6987th Radio Squadron, Mobile located at Shu Lin Kou Air Station, Taiwan, due to the increased tension in the Taiwan Straits created by the Chinese shelling of Quemoy. Soviet fighters shot down a C-130 Airborne Reconnaissance Program aircraft on 2 September 1958 when it strayed off-course over Soviet Armenia. All crew members were assumed killed, including 11 USAFSS personnel. A B-50 Superfortress, also used by USAFSS as a reconnaissance platform.

1959 - The replacement of RB-50s in Europe was completed in July 1959 with arrival of the eighth C-130. The European RB-50s were moved to the Pacific, giving that area nine RB-50 Airborne Reconnaissance Program aircraft. The transfer of bases to USAFSS under the "Integrated Command Concept" was completed on 1 July 1959 with the transfer of Wakkanai Air Station, Japan, and Shu Lin Kou Air Station, Taiwan.
The United States Air Force Security Service first became involved in the war in Southeast Asia in August 1959 when national intelligence authorities tasked the command to make maximum effort to provide intelligence relating to North Vietnamese or Laotian rebel movements. Existing USAFSS units were not in the most favorable geographical locations to obtain such information; therefore, in the spring of 1960, USAFSS sent a small team to Bangkok, Thailand.

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AIA in the 1960s

Major General Millard Lewis assumed command of USAFSS effective 21 September 1959, replacing Major General Gordon A. Blake who was reassigned to HQ Pacific Air Forces as Chief of Staff effective 5 August 1959. 1960. The 6917th Radio Squadron, Mobile, became the first USAFSS unit in Italy when it was activated at San Vito on 1 November 1960.

1961 - As the tempo of the Vietnam War increased, USAFSS became involved in a program which eventually became known as the Airborne Radio Direction Finding program. That year, General Curtis E. LeMay, Air Force Chief of Staff, ordered several experimental aircraft, equipped with radio homing equipment, into Southeast Asia.

1962 - In December 1961, PACAF asked USAFSS to send an Emergency Reaction Unit to Da Nang Air Base, South Vietnam, to support a Tactical Air Control System that was being set up there. USAFSS deployed the unit in early 1962. Intelligence processed by the USAFSS Airborne Reconnaissance Program provided the first significant intelligence data concerning the extent of Soviet involvement in Cuba. The United States Air Force Security Service deployed an Emergency Reaction Unit (ERU) to Key West, Florida, to provide tactical support. Also, the command increased its Cuban Airborne Reconnaissance Program coverage from one to three aircraft. Strategic Air Command operated RC-135 aircraft began flying reconnaissance missions in the Arctic. Major General (later Lieutenant General) Richard P. Klocko assumed command of USAFSS effective 1 September 1962, replacing Major General Millard Lewis who retired from active duty.

1963 - USAFSS activated three Emergency Reaction Units, the 6948th Security Squadron, Mobile, at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas; the 6926th Security Squadron, Mobile, at Clark AB, the Philippines; and the 6911th Security Squadron, Mobile, at Darmstadt, Germany. The following USAFSS communications functions were transferred to AFCS: (1) operation and maintenance of the Critical Communications relay stations; (2) operation and maintenance of terminal station technical control; and (3) terminal station maintenance. In response to the Air Force problem of how to reduce or eliminate intermediate echelons and separate units, USAFSS initiated the "Operational Wing Concept." Under this concept, the mission unit was discontinued and a support squadron was organized. The functions of the mission unit were absorbed into the wing structure. The concept was implemented in Europe late in 1963 and in the Pacific in 1964.

1964 - The motto "Freedom Through Vigilance" was adopted in January 1964.

The Operational Wing Concept was implemented in the Pacific. In early 1964, the USAFSS commander, Major General Richard P. Klocko, asked the Air Staff and the Strategic Air Command to support the addition of six RC-135s to the airborne effort.

1965 - In June 1965, after many months of intense negotiations, the Office of the Secretary of Defense approved the addition of six RC-135s to the airborne effort. But even then, a debate arose over where to base the RC-135s, and it took 18 more months of negotiations before a base of operations was finally selected. With the air war in Vietnam heating up, Japan, Thailand, and the Philippines, as well as Da Nang, South Vietnam, and Kadena, Okinawa, were all considered. On 26 March 1965, USAF headquarters issued instructions to USAFSS to transfer all Air Force Special Security Officer functions to the using commands effective 1 July 1965. This resulted in the transfer of 811 USAFSS personnel at some 50 locations around the world to the consumer commands. The Gold Flow problem, an Air Force-wide program to reduce overseas manning, resulted in the reduction of 302 USAFSS personnel overseas. The loss of an RB-57 over the Black Sea on 15 December 1965 resulted in a Government of Turkey ban on Airborne Reconnaissance Program flights from their country. The RB-57 was one of two aircraft in the Little Cloud project which were manned and maintained by the Pakistan Air Force at Peshawar. United States Air Force Security Service Airborne Reconnaissance Program missions in Southeast Asia increased from one to two daily, using four RC-130s instead of two. The first AN/FLR-9 systems became operational -- at Misawa Air Base, Japan, in March 1965 and Clark Air Base, the Philippines, in April 1965.

United States Air Force Security Service Airborne Reconnaissance Program aircraft (C-130s) began participating in tactical operations in Southeast Asia, supporting both USAF and Navy strike forces by providing alert warnings. This was the first time the command became involved in a regular program of providing tactical support to combat operations. The USAFSS Airborne Reconnaissance Program unit in the Pacific area performed the command's first airborne transmission security monitoring mission on a test basis. On 28 September 1965, the Air Force Chief of Staff approved the release of communication security violators' names in transmission security reports. This was a first in transmissions security reporting. The approval granted release of names down to division level. Major General Louis E. Coira assumed command of USAFSS effective 16 October 1965, replacing Major General Richard P. Klocko who was reassigned as commander of the Air Force Communications Service.

1966 - The USAF Airborne Radio Direction Finding Program was nicknamed Phyllis Ann. The first Phyllis Ann EC- 47 Airborne Radio Direction Finding Program aircraft arrived at Tan Son Nhut, Air Base, Vietnam, in April 1966 for use by the newly activated 6994th Security Squadron. The first AN/FLR-12 antenna system became operational. In 1966, Office of the Secretary of Defense requested USAF to provide an objective evaluation of its electronic warfare system effectiveness. Later that year, the Chief of Staff, USAF, directed the establishment of an Electronic Warfare evaluation function in USAFSS. CSAF assigned this task to USAFSS because: (1) USAFSS was a disinterested command -- it neither built nor operated electronic warfare systems; (2) USAFSS had the necessary core skills; (3) it had access to the critically needed intelligence data; and (4) it had a close working relationship with NSA as the Air Force component of the service's cryptologic system. The task was to assess the effectiveness of protective electronic countermeasures employed by U.S. aircraft during air strikes against North Vietnam.

United States Air Force Security Service Airborne Reconnaissance Program units began performing airborne transmissions security monitoring on a time available, non-interfering basis. In consonance with a USAF program to increase the use of women in the Air Force, USAFSS assigned women to its units in Karamursel, Turkey; Iraklion, Crete; Chicksands, United Kingdom; Misawa, Japan; and Shu Lin Kou, Taiwan; as well as at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, and Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. This was the first time enlisted women were assigned to USAFSS operational sites overseas. On 16 January 1967 the Air Force Special Communications Center established a 24-hour/7-day per week function to provide direct support to any agency needing information. This data base was the culmination of several years of developmental effort by the Center. It proved increasingly valuable in permitting rapid response to complex queries for technical and intelligence data. The 6990th Security Squadron was organized at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, to receive the six RC-135 aircraft assigned to the Pacific Airborne Reconnaissance Program effort. The first RC-135 Airborne Reconnaissance Program mission, named Combat Apple, was flown on 12 September 1967. The Iron Horse system was put into operation at Da Nang AB (6924th Security Squadron) and Monkey Mountain, South Vietnam.

In 1967, USAFSS assigned its new electronic warfare evaluation mission to the Air Force Special Communications Center (later AF Information Warfare Center) at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. The USAFSS assigned the mission to the Air Force Special Communications Center because the Center had a cadre of experienced analysts. In addition, the Center's analytic task was phasing down which made the necessary office space available. This new mission was the first major change in the command's mission in many years. The initial evaluations were disseminated electrically in Comfy Coat reports. Later, the effort was expanded to cover evaluation of Navy and ground electronic warfare, and Army, Navy, and Marine personnel were assigned to the Air Force Special Communications Center. As the years passed, general usage of the term Comfy Coat came to mean all operational electronic warfare effectiveness evaluations being conducted by the Air Force Special Communications Center.

1968 - The Government of Pakistan refused to renew the lease for the USAFSS site at Peshawar (6937th Communications Group). The unit closed by the end of 1969. The 6990th Security Squadron at Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, won the Travis Trophy for its highly significant contributions toward the fulfillment of both national and tactical cryptologic objectives.

1969 - The Department of Defense decided to reduce forces in Turkey and realign the intelligence posture there. This realignment caused the subsequent closure of the USAFSS sites at Trabzon and Samsun and the establishment of a USAFSS squadron (6934th Security Squadron) at Sinop. Operations site of the 6924th Security Squadron, Da Nang, South Vietnam in 1966.

The 6994th Security Squadron, Tan Son Nhut Air Base, Vietnam, received the Travis Trophy for outstanding contributions to the cryptologic efforts of the U.S. Major General Carl W. Stapleton replaced Major General Louis E. Coira as commander effective 19 July 1969.

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AIA in the 1970s

The 6994th Security Squadron, Tan Son Nhut Air Base, Vietnam, received the Travis Trophy for outstanding contributions to the cryptologic efforts of the U.S. Major General Carl W. Stapleton replaced Major General Louis E. Coira as commander effective 19 July 1969.

1970 - The pilot class of the USAFSS Senior Officers Orientation Course was conducted at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas. The results were "unfavorable," so the course subsequently went through an 18-month period of revision and refinement. A small ceremony attended by representatives of the U.S. and Pakistani Air Forces closed out the tenure of the USAFSS "Communications Unit" (6937th Communications Group) at Peshawar, Pakistan, on 7 January 1970, thereby ending 15 years of valuable intelligence support at the site. The year 1970 saw the operational wing concept fall by the wayside as USAFSS reorganized its subordinate unit posture to strengthen the role of the Regions under this concept. All USAFSS overseas wings were redesignated as groups and their subordinate units placed under the direct control of the two Regions. In 1970, the increasing hostile threat against Airborne Reconnaissance Program aircraft focused national level emphasis on reducing manned reconnaissance flights in high threat areas. Consequently, USAF deployed a series of unmanned drone vehicles and piloted airframes. The first of these systems to be deployed was Combat Dawn, an unmanned drone staged and operated from Korea.

1971 - United States Air Force Security Service acquired its first medical facility on 1 July 1971 when the USAF Hospital at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, was transferred from the Air Training Command (ATC) to USAFSS.

Primarily because of the command's contributions during the Southeast Asia war, USAFSS units earned 46 Air Force Outstanding Unit Awards, two Presidential Unit Citations, the Navy Meritorious Unit Commendation Award, and two special awards for outstanding contributions to the National Cryptologic Effort during 1967-1971. Prior to 1967 (1948-66), command units had garnered only 33 such awards. The C-130 fleet from Japan replaced the aging C-130 fleet in Europe. The 6908th Security Squadron was activated at Nakhon Phanom Airport, Thailand, to operate Senior Book and Compass Flag programs, as well as process and report the intercept collected from both platforms. The 6300th Support Squadron (later redesignated 6300th Aerospace Support Squadron) was activated at Ko Kha, Thailand, on 1 July 1971 to support Cobra Talon. Hof AS, Germany, was turned over to the United States Air Forces in Europe and the 6915th Security Squadron was inactivated.

1972 - The first class of the Revised Senior Officers Orientation Course was conducted at HQ USAFSS with favorable results. The USAFSS School at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, was accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. The USAFSS School was the first one in the Air Force to receive this recognition. President Nixon announced a major reorganization of U.S. intelligence agencies and activities on 5 November 1971, causing a flurry of reorganization planning activities during the remainder of Fiscal Year 1972. One of the principal objectives of the reorganization was to establish a more coherent structure for manning the U.S. cryptologic effort to include the creation of a "National Cryptologic Command." A significant milestone in achieving this objective was reached on 14 April 1972 when the Secretary of Defense approved for implementation the National Security Agency/Central Security Service (NSACSS) organizational plan. The United States Air Force Security Service organized the Air Force Communications Security Center on Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, on 1 July 1972 to execute Air Force COMSEC missions assigned to USAFSS. It also had overseas units assigned to assist Air Force theater activities with various COMSEC services.

In Japan, DOD Program Budget Decisions resulted in a complete realignment of the cryptologic structure, forcing the closure of Wakkanai AS (6986th Security Group) and inactivation of the 6918th Security Squadron at Hakata AS and the 6988th Security Squadron, the command's airborne unit at Yokota AB. Concurrently, projects associated with the 6988th Security Squadron, such as Bench Royal and Rivet Gym manning for College Eye, were discontinued, and the remaining Combat Dawn mission was transferred to the 6903d Security Squadron at Osan Air Base, Korea. Host base activities at Misawa Air Base, Japan (6921st Security Wing) were transferred from Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) to USAFSS on 1 July 1972. The 6910th Security Group was moved from Darmstadt, Germany, to Augsburg, Germany. As a part of the reorganization of U.S. Intelligence Agencies and Activities, both HQ European Security Region and HQ Pacific Security Region were deactivated, on 30 June and 31 December 1972, respectively, eliminating the intermediate headquarters between USAFSS and its field units in Europe and the Pacific. The TEABALL/WCC concept was implemented. This concept provided for the relaying of intelligence data to USAF weapons controllers located in the 6908th Security Squadron operations area at Nakhon Phanom Airport, Thailand. The weapons controllers used the data to enhance positive control of USAF aircrews over North Vietnam for both offensive and defense purposes.

1973 - On 24 February 1973, Major General (later Lieutenant General) Walter T. Galligan replaced Major General Stapleton as commander of USAFSS. Shortly thereafter, General Galligan directed a comprehensive, command-wide manpower and organization review of the USAFSS organizational structure which, on 1 July 1974, resulted in a major reorganization of the command. Program Budget Decision 138C, dated 22 December 1972, cut four RC-130 Airborne Reconnaissance Program aircraft from the European Airborne Reconnaissance Program fleet, effective in early 1973. The TEMPEST (compromising emanations) function was transferred from the Air Force Cryptologic Depot to the AF Special Communications Center, effective 20 April 1973. The command's European Airborne Reconnaissance Program unit (the 6916th Security Squadron) moved from Rhein Main Air Base, Germany, to Athens, Greece, on 30 June 1973.

Beginning on 2 October 1973, HQ USAFSS, its European units, and the AF Special Communications Center became actively engaged in providing intelligence and electronic warfare support to U.S. forces/agencies observing the Arab/ Israeli War.

1974 - United States Air Force Security Service implemented the Main Operating Base/Forward Operating Base concept on 1 January 1974. Under this USAFSS/SAC concept, 12 Rivet Joint ASRP RC-135 aircraft and crews were based at the Main Operating Base (Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska) where they received the bulk of their support, but flew many of their missions from the Forward Operating Base (Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, and RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom) where they received only mission essential support.

A major reorganization of USAFSS resulted in the restructuring of most USAFSS units. Significant actions included: (1) a major reorganization of six USAFSS host units overseas; (2) a restructuring of USAFSS units engaged in airborne operations, including activation of the 6944th Security Wing at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska; (3) activation of the 6955th Security Group at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, and the resubordination of five USAFSS squadrons (including the emergency reactions units) under the newly formed group; and (4) the downgrading from groups to squadrons of three USAFSS tenant units. On 21 May 1974, Major General H. P. Smith assumed command of USAFSS, replacing Major General (later Lieutenant General) Walter T. Galligan who was reassigned as commander of 5th Air Force at Fuchu Air Station, Japan. General Smith came to USAFSS from the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) where he served as Deputy Director for Intelligence. In the face of constant reductions, the only solution for USAFSS was to find ways to do the job better. The Command's Rivet Joint modernization proposal, which the Secretary of Defense approved on 29 July 1974, represented one approach toward improved operations. It was aimed at replacing the obsolete equipment in the 12-aircraft Rivet Joint fleet. When the last C-47 Airborne Radio Direction Finding aircraft returned to its base at 1545 hours on 15 May 1974, it marked an end to a relatively brief but proud era in USAFSS airborne operations. For eight years, the Airborne Radio Direction Finding program had provided valuable support to U.S. and friendly tactical commanders throughout Southeast Asia. Yet another era in USAFSS mission operations ended on 30 June 1974 when the 6910th Security Group at Augsburg, Germany, and the 6994th Security Squadron at Ubon, Air Force Station, Thailand, were inactivated. The 6910th Security Group had been a mainstay of USAFSS operations in Europe since December 1953, while the 6994th Security Squadron served as the Command's unit in Vietnam during the war. At one time, the 6994th Security Squadron and its detachments operated the mission equipment aboard some 48 EC-47 aircraft in South Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Thailand. On 1 July 1974, the Consolidated Security Operations Center, a joint USAFSS and Army Security Agency was activated in San Antonio, Texas, at Lackland Air Force Base Annex (formerly Medina Base). The United States Air Force Security Service deployed a 114-man emergency reaction unit to San Vito, Italy, for 60 days resulting from the Cypriot/Cretan Crisis. On 16 August 1974, Greek protesters penetrated the base perimeter at Iraklion AS, Crete (6931st Security Group) inflicting considerable damage to U.S. property located near the station's perimeter fence.

United States Air Force Security Service Commander, Major General H. P. Smith, established a Crisis Management Team (consisting of operations specialists having an intimate knowledge of unit operations, posture, and functions) to be available to the USAFSS Battle Staff for consultation during future crisis situations. Colonel (later Major General) Norma E. Brown became the first woman to command an Air Force wing when she assumed command of the 6940th Security Wing, Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, on 1 December 1974.

1975 - For nearly eight years, Combat Apple played a key role in Southeast Asia operations. Then, on 30 April 1975, after the emergency evacuation of U.S. and South Vietnamese personnel from Saigon, the last Combat Apple mission was flown. The Air Force Special Communications Center (AFSCC) was redesignated the Air Force Electronic Warfare Center (AFEWC), effective 1 July 1975, to reflect more accurately the Center's EW mission and give it greater visibility throughout the Defense Department. Early in 1974, General John Vogt, Commander in Chief, United States Air Forces in Europe, (CINCUSAFE), based on his experience with intelligence support during the Vietnam War, established a requirement for timely intelligence support. Headquarters USAF decided USAFSS could best provide this support through its 6911th Security Squadron (M) which would become a direct support unit. But first the unit had to undergo a significant expansion of personnel, equipment, and real estate and be moved from Rhein Main, Germany, to Hahn Air Base, Germany. That happened on 25 July 1975 when it was converted to a Direct Support Unit (DSU) immediately responsive to requests from European consumers, mainly USAFE, for intelligence support of a primarily tactical nature. United States Air Force Security Service ended an era on 24 June 1975 when it turned in all of its administrative aircraft -- two O-2s and three C-118s -- ending 24 years of airlift support to the command headquarters. The Kelly Air Force Base, Texas-based USAFSS Flight Operations Section closed out operations with an unblemished flying safety record (zero accident rate) for those 24 years, averaging 2,200 flying hours per year. On 25 July 1975, the Turkish government ordered all U.S. operations at Karamursel Air Station shutdown immediately, due to an arms embargo imposed against Turkey by the U.S. Congress. Major General Kenneth D. Burns replaced Major General H. P. Smith as USAFSS Commander effective 11 August 1975.

1976 - In June 1975, termination of the high altitude reconnaissance drone, nicknamed Combat Dawn, created an intelligence void that was only partially offset by introduction of the Burning Candy RC-135. Approval of an operation to fill that void was stalled until a flurry of activity in early January 1976 pointed toward imminent activation of a U-2 operation from Osan Air Base, Korea. When the dust settled, USAFSS was charged with manning the system, nicknamed Olympic Game, and the 6903d Security Squadron at Osan AB was assigned the Olympic Game mission. The AFEWC learned that it had been awarded the Air Force Organizational Excellence Award for the period 1 January 1974-1 January 1976 in recognition of its ". . . comprehensive operational electronic warfare support to the Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, and all of the military services . . ." The 6924th Security Squadron, Ramasun Station, Thailand, which had been stationed at Da Nang AB, South Vietnam, during the war in Southeast Asia, was deactivated on 15 May 1976.

1977 - A longtime USAFSS unit, the 6987th Security Squadron at Shu Lin Kou Air Station, Taiwan, was discontinued on 1 April 1977. After two years of unsuccessful negotiations between the U.S. and Turkey to reopen operations at Karamursel, the 6933d Security Group was discontinued on 1 October 1977. The impact of the Thailand, Taiwan, and Turkey reductions was partially offset by reallocation of tasks and resources to other USAFSS bases. USAFSS transferred its cryptologic school at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, to the Air Training Command (ATC) on 1 July 1978. Three months later, on 1 October, USAFSS ended 20 years of base management, transferring its last four bases -- San Vito Air Station, Italy; Iraklion Air Station, Crete; RAF Chicksands, United Kingdom; and Misawa Air Base, Japan -- to the theater commands. The net result was the transfer to other Air Force commands of 17 USAFSS units, a cryptologic training mission, 5 host bases, and about 4,000 USAFSS personnel. Although the outflow of personnel from the command sometimes seemed like a flood, there occasionally was a trickle of spaces back into the command. The Command headquarters building (Bldg. 2000) was named Ardisana Hall on 14 July 1978 in memory of Brigadier General Bernard Ardisana, a longtime member of the command and a former vice commander who died on active duty while assigned to NSA. The first operational application of C3CM by ESC occurred during exercise Blue Flag 79-1, 1-10 December 1978, at Hurlburt Field, FL.

1979 - Major General Doyle E. Larson replaced Major General Kenneth D. Burns as USAFSS Commander effective 19 January 1979. General Larson was the last USAFSS Commander and the first ESC Commander. On 1 February 1979, USAFSS transferred operation and maintenance of its Telecommunications Center to Air Force Communications Service (now Air Force Communications Command). On 17 July 1979, Major General Larson officially opened the Command Alert Center. Headquarters USAFSS was redesignated the Headquarters Electronic Security Command (ESC), effective 1 August 1979, because of its broader electronic warfare (EW) responsibilities. The units assigned to USAFSS were automatically transferred to ESC.

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AIA in the 1980s

1980 - The ESC Comfy Olympics program was officially created 1 January 1980 to identify and recognize ESC's most talented individual enlisted technicians. Modeled after the Strategic Air Command's annual missile, bombing and munitions competitions, the objectives of the program were to improve technical performance and proficiency and recognize and reward technical excellence command-wide. The Air Force Cryptologic Depot (AFCD) was redesignated the Air Force Cryptologic Support Center (AFCSC) effective 1 February 1980. Construction of a Document Destruction System (DDS) as an addition to Ardisana Hall, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, was completed on 19 March 1980 at a cost of $74,200. DIRNSA assigned the Ladylove mission to ESC effective 31 March 1980. Headquarters USAF established the Directorate of Electromagnetic Combat (AF/XOE), DCS/Operations, Plans, and Readiness, in support of the ESC mission on 30 April 1979. The Joint Electronic Warfare Center (JEWC) was activated at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, on 1 October 1980 and functioned under the direction of the Joint Chiefs of Staff through the Director of Operations, Joint Staff. Major General Doyle E. Larson, also assigned as ESC Commander, was assigned as Director of the JEWC. The ESC emblem was approved on 12 February 1980 and became official 1 March 1980. There was no motto selected at that time. The command did not have a motto until the old USAFSS motto, Freedom Through Vigilance, was selected in 1987. Transfer of the SCI adjudication function and spaces from ESC to AFIS/INS was completed during July 1980. The first modernized Rivet Joint Block III aircraft was delivered.

The Air Staff tasked ESC on 30 September 1980 to take the lead in getting a Red Force Team (Constant Spur) underway to employ adversary C3CM actions against friendly operators (combat crews, weapons controllers, communications) and C3 facilities in order to train them in a degraded C3 environment, and stress friendly C3 systems. On 3 November 1980, Headquarters USAF directed ESC to combine the Red Force (Constant Spur) and Blue Force (Electronic Support Team) programs. The combined program was designated Comfy Challenge and the interim program was designated Comfy Sword II.

1981 - Navy Lieutenant Cmdr G. Guy Thomas received the Air Force Officer Aircrew Member Badge on 5 January 1981, becoming the first member of the Department of the Navy to be awarded the Air Force wings. The operational deployment of the first modernized Rivet Joint aircraft to the 6988 ESS, RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom, took place on 9 January 1981. Completion of the modernization of the second aircraft and its subsequent deployment to the 6985 ESS, Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, occurred in February 1981. Successful Block III operations at these two units, and mixed fleet operations at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, continued throughout the year despite frequent surge tasking and increased sortie rates. Introduction of the third, fourth, and fifth modernized aircraft into the fleet followed in March, August, and December 1981. Cobra Ball II was destroyed in an accident at Shemya Air Force Station, Alaska, on 15 March 1981. ESC began its own daily reveille and retreat ceremonies on 1 June 1981. The HQ ESC DCS/Operations (DO) and DCS/National Programs (NP) merged on 1 July 1981 with NP becoming a part of DO. The HQ 6910th Electronic Security Wing was activated at Lindsey Air Station, Germany, effective 1 July 1981, to perform in-theater planning with USAFE and other service staffs on ESC's C3CM and tactical intelligence support missions. This included performing peacetime, exercise, contingency and wartime planning for intelligence and C3CM programs/projects. The 8075th Electronic Security Squadron (USAFR), ESC's first Air Force Reserve unit, was established at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas, on 1 October 1981 to provide Communications Security support for the Air Force and other DoD organizations. The first Coronet Guard Comfy Levi mission was flown out of Howard Air Force Base, Panama, in an attempt to expand U.S. capabilities in the Central American area. These missions lasted from 8 October to 18 December 1981. The USAFSS/ESC Alumni Association was formally organized on 26 October 1981. The group was established to foster continued awareness of the mission and accomplishments of the U.S. Air Force and ESC, and to provide its members a forum for desirable social, educational, and humanitarian services.

1982 - The 6952 ESS, which provided maintenance support for the TR-1 aircraft, was activated at RAF Alconbury, United Kingdom, and assigned to the 6910 ESW, effective 1 January 1982, to ensure all ESC critical support requirements would be in place prior to the Strategic Air Command's TR-1 beddown at Alconbury in early 1983. On 16 February 1982, HQ USAF tasked ESC to provide integrated, all source Operations Security (OPSEC) support to MAJCOMs, DRUs and SOAs. Support included threat assessment and vulnerability analysis. In August 1982, the ESC Commander directed the merger of the Office of Assistant Chief of Staff for Total Force Augmentation (CF) and the Reserve Affairs Office (DPB). This was accomplished on 17 December 1982. Rationale for the merger was that it would increase mission effectiveness by establishing management of the entire ESC Individual Mobilization Augmentation (IMA) Program under one function, reporting directly to the Deputy Chief of Staff, Personnel (DP). On 1 October 1982, Special Agent Pat Martin, the first Air Force Office of Special Investigations (AFOSI) Counterintelligence representative, was assigned to HQ ESC reporting directly to the ESC Chief of Staff. The objective was to establish enhanced AFOSI investigative/operational support to HQ ESC by increasing AFOSI's visibility/accessibility through direct, continuing interface with HQ ESC staff elements. Detachment 2, Electronic Security Combat Operations Staff (ESCOS) was activated at HQ Military Airlift Command (MAC), Scott Air Force Base, IL, on 1 December 1982, and assigned as an integrated directorate, responsible to the MAC Deputy Chief of Staff, Operations. Lieutenant Colonel (Colonel selectee) Wesley Brown was assigned as Detachment Commander in July 1983. In December 1982, the 6924 ESS, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Michael S. Cassidy, was rated outstanding by the ESC IG, the first outstanding IG rating in the history of the Command. The first new Comfy Sword IA system was delivered to the 6981 ESS on 17 December 1982 for initial deployment in support of exercise Brim Frost 83. The remaining eleven Comfy Sword IA systems were scheduled for completion during 1983.

1983 - The first TR-1 airframe was deployed to RAF Alconbury, United Kingdom, on 10 February 1983, and the 6952 ESS entered the era of providing direct support to intelligence operations in Europe. Concurrent with the arrival of the TR-1, U-2R operations in the Central European theater ceased and ESC U-2R maintenance personnel assigned to the 6988 ESS at RAF Mildenhall, United Kingdom, were transferred to the 6952 ESS. In February 1983, the 6960th Security Police Squadron's cadre was reestablished as the "Special Security Guard," replacing the familiar "Elite Guard." The ESC Hall of Honor, located in Ardisana Hall was formally dedicated on 9 April 1983 in conjunction with HQ ESC National Prisoner of War (POW)/Missing in Action (MIA) observance. Major General Doyle E. Larson delivered the welcoming remarks and former USAFSS Commander, Major General (Ret) Carl W. Stapleton, presented the keynote address. Major General John B. Marks became ESC Commander on 29 July 1983, replacing Major General Doyle E. Larson. The Headquarters, Electronic Security, Alaska (HQ ESA) was activated at Elmendorf Air Force Base, Alaska, effective 1 October 1983. The activation of HQ ESA strengthened the organizational structure of ESC's Alaskan units -- the 6981 ESS at Elmendorf Air Force Base, assigned to HQ ESP at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, and the 6985 ESS at Eielson Air Force Base, Alaska, assigned to HQ ESS at Offutt Air Force Base, Neb. -- by assigning both of them to a headquarters in Alaska.

The 8078th ESS (AFRES) was activated at Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska, on 1 October 1983. AFRES Prime Beef teams from Indiana, Washington, and Wisconsin constructed the squadron's 4,000 square foot building. The unit's mission was to train for and conduct communications surveillance activities in support of HQ SAC. Peacetime control of the 8078 ESS was through the Fourteenth Air Force. ESC would gain the unit upon mobilization.

1984 - Olympic Game U-2 aircraft, crashed at Osan Air Base, Korea, on 21 May 1984 totally destroying all airborne systems on board. In a formal ceremony on 29 June 1984, Mrs. Betty Leftwich, wife of TSgt Raymond F. Leftwich, helped Major General Marks unveil a plaque memorializing a dormitory on Security Hill in her late husband's name. Technical Sergeant Leftwich, a USAFSS radio operator, was killed in March 1967 when the EC-47 aircraft he was flying in from Nha Trang Air Base, Vietnam, was shot down by enemy fire. He headed a crew of three USAFSS operators assigned to Detachment 1, 6994th Security Squadron, when his aircraft was shot down and all crew members were killed. A second Olympic Game U-2 aircraft, crashed at Osan Air Base on 8 October 1984, destroying the airborne system and data link system. On 29 October 1984, ground was broken for the 74,000 square foot addition to Ardisana Hall (Building 2000) at a contract cost of $5,216,958.

1985 - On 1 April 1985, DCS/Space Activities (SX) was created from resources previously assigned to the discontinued Directorate of Space Activities (DOZ), DCS/Operations. The 8085th Security Police Flight (AFRES) was activated on 10 April 1985 to augment the 6960th Security Police Squadron during wartime. It was the first unit of its kind to be assigned a wartime mission at HQ ESC. Brigadier General (later Major General) Paul H. Martin assumed command of ESC on 17 April 1985, replacing Major General Marks who retired. On 29 April 1985, AFMPC advised ESC that the Secretary of the Air Force had approved a new policy that permitted Air Force women to perform airborne duty aboard Tactical Air Force EC-130 Compass Call aircraft. This assignment was a unique opportunity for female crypto linguists, who in the past had limited opportunity, to serve as aircrew members. Effective 8 May 1985, all people scheduled for assignment to NSA or related field activities were required to undergo a polygraph examination prior to departing their losing base. This screening included certain ESC positions. The nearest AFOSI scheduled the examination which had to be completed prior to issuance of permanent change of station (PCS) orders. Only espionage questions were asked. ESC assumed the Computer Security (COMPUSEC) mission for the Air Force on 17 May 1985 with the transfer of the Air Force Computer Security Office from Gunter Air Force Base, AL, to AFCSC.

Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (Retired) Richard D. Kisling, a former USAFSS Senior Enlisted Advisor and third Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, died and was buried in Arlington National Cemetery on 7 November 1985. Phase I of the integration of HQ ESC Communications and Data Automation functions was implemented on 1 May 1985 with establishment of the DCS/Information Systems (SI). Because of terrorist activities in Greece, the Secretary of Defense imposed travel restrictions on U.S. military personnel. These restrictions required passengers to use MAC airlift to the maximum extent possible. In June 1985, HQ USAF advised Air Force personnel that PCS/TDY (temporary duty) travel from and to the CONUS would be by MAC contract and military organic flights, routed through Rhein Main AB, Germany, with travel to and from Greece via military organic flights. These restrictions affected personnel movements because of the time required to complete travel -- a minimum of three days, more if assigned to Iraklion; and an overnight stay in Athens if traveling to Iraklion and Frankfurt. The addition of a direct flight from Rhein Main AB, Germany, to Hellenikon AB, Greece, helped some travelers, but not all. During 1985, a new era in intelligence training began at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, with the transfer of the Electronics Intelligence Operations Specialist Course from Keesler Air Force Base, Miss. This transfer represented the first in a series of moves designed to consolidate intelligence training at the Goodfellow Technical Training Center.

1986 - In March 1986, the U.S. Air Forces, Europe (USAFE) Vice Commander (CV) reviewed the draft Compass Call organization structure which had been prepared by the ESC and USAFE staffs in October 1985. On 28 March 1986, Major General Martin approved 6919 ESS as the designator for the new ESC Compass Call squadron, and on the same day, USAFE transferred 109 manpower billets to ESC effective 1 October 1986. USAFE agreed to provide ESC all facilities and equipment required to support the USAFE Compass Call mission. The 6919 ESS was activated at Sembach AB, Germany, on 1 October 1986. In early 1983, the idea of establishing an ESC-gained Air National Guard (ANG) Electronic Security Squadron (ESS) was born. The large number of languagequalified people and excellent ANG support available in the Salt Lake City, Utah, area made that city a most attractive location for an ESC Reserve Force airborne unit to support wartime and contingency operations. The idea was to fill ESC shortages of airborne crypto linguists while saving Air Force training funds by recruiting individuals already proficient in a language. On 5 February 1986, organization of the unit was announced publicly. Then, a Department of the Air Force (DAF) letter officially announced the constitution of the unit effective 9 April 1986, stating the unit would be allotted to the ANG on/about 8 October 1986, with ESC as the gaining command. On 14 April 1986, U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy aircraft conducted a nighttime air strike against the Libyan SA-5 complex at Surte, the Al-Azziziyah Barracks in Tripoli, the Benghazi military barracks, the Benina military airfield, the military side of Tripoli airport, and terrorist training facilities in the port of Sidi Bilal. Between 13-18 April, ESC units in Europe were tasked to provide intelligence support to U.S. activities against Libya. This support involved special tasking for the 6917 ESG, 6931 ESS, 6950 ESG, and RC-135/Rivet Joint crews from the 6916 ESS. HQ ESE was the in-theater ESC executive agent for this effort. The RC- 135 provided intelligence support to Sixth Fleet elements during the central Mediterranean operations and later Search and Rescue (SAR) assistance during the search for a downed F-111. In 1984, then ESC Commander, Major General John B. Marks, directed a concerted staff effort to investigate various strategies which would serve to reposture and/or realign the command's tactical assets to better support exercise and wartime tasking. An outgrowth of this tasking was a proposal to consolidate the mobile ESC assets located at the 6913 ESS, Flak Kaserne, Augsburg, Germany, with those of the 6918 ESS, Sembach AB, Germany, at the Mehlingen annex of Sembach Air Base. On 15 April 1985, ESC/CC formally proposed this initiative to USAFE/CV who accepted and approved it on 19 July 1985. This combined unit was to be called the 6914 ESS. On 1 October 1986, the 6918 ESS vacated its Sembach AB location and set up at Mehlingen Annex and was renamed the 6914 ESS. The move of the 6913 ESS (mobile) from Augsburg to Mehlingen annex was slated for April 1987. On 21 April 1986, the ESC Command Innovation Center (IC) was created as a special office reporting directly to the ESC Vice Commander. Its purpose was to institute a conscious, purposeful search for innovative opportunities throughout ESC. This innovation strategy was established as an integral part of ESC's long-range planning process. The Center's first director was Lieutenant Colonel John A. Lewis. In August 1986, the 6990 ESG moved its operations function from the Army facility at Torii Station to Kadena Air Base, Okinawa, and began operations in its new facility on 1 September 1986. This move brought the unit's operations and logistics functions together at one central location on Kadena Air Base with the 961 AWACS and 376 SW. The completion of this relocation project, which began in February 1985, brought to a close more than sixteen years of Army service and support to the 6990 ESG. On 8 September 1986, the ESC Office of Innovation was established. This was to increase the emphasis and move on with ESC's corporate strategy for innovation. Colonel Rolf Smith headed the office, reporting directly to the ESC Chief of Staff. On 1 October 1986, the following ESC units were redesignated as ESC Divisions: . Headquarters Electronic Security Europe (ESE), Ramstein Air Base, Germany, was redesignated HQ European Electronic Security Division (EESD). . Headquarters Electronic Security Pacific (ESP), Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, was redesignated HQ Pacific Electronic Security Division (PESD). . Headquarters 6960th Electronic Security Wing (ESW), Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, was redesignated HQ Continental Electronic Security Division (CESD). Also effective 1 October 1986 was activation of HQ Space Electronic Security Division (SESD) at Peterson AFB, Colo., and the inactivation of OL ES, HQ Electronic Security Combat Operations Staff, Peterson Air Force Base, Colo. A contract award of $5,2l6,958 was made on 2 October 1984 for a 74,100 square-foot addition to the HQ ESC building. Construction was completed, and the new building (2007) was accepted in June 1986. The Air Force Communications Command (AFCC) took charge of the addition for communication installation which was completed in November 1986. The furniture move was completed, and the building occupied before the end of December 1986.

In 1986, after nearly seven years of planning, the 6903 ESG and other U.S. and Republic of Korea Air Force (ROKAF) intelligence functions moved into the Korean Combat Operations Intelligence Center (KCOIC). Despite several significant problems with the KCOIC construction project, the relocation of 6903 ESG mission assets from Hill 170 to the KCOIC began, as scheduled, on 1 October 1986. By 1 November 1986, all mission equipment and support functions were fully operational, well before the 10 December 1986 IOC date previously planned.

1987 - Staff Sergeant Renata Gross, 6990 ESG, became the command's first woman to fly on an operational RC-135. The auditorium of Headquarters Electronic Security Command (ESC), building 2007 (originally known as building 2025), was designated Bernard A. Larger Auditorium, effective 1 January 1987 in honor of Colonel Bernard A. Larger (deceased). The rationale was that the current Larger Auditorium (in building 2000) would eventually be modified into office space and a small briefing room, and the new conference area was more in keeping with the honor to be accorded Colonel Larger. Colonel Leonard W. Johnson, Jr., Command Surgeon, was killed when the single engine plane he was flying crashed during a thunderstorm five miles south of Kokomo, Ind. He served as Command Surgeon from 16 August 1984 until his untimely death on 1 August l987. When USAFSS was redesignated ESC in August 1979, the command motto, Freedom Through Vigilance, was retired and was not replaced. So, beginning on 23 December 1986, HQ ESC conducted a contest to select a motto. The contest ended on 3 June 1987, with the announcement that, once again, "Freedom Through Vigilance," a motto that had a proud heritage and special meaning for the Command, would be the command motto.

ESC's first and only Air National Guard unit, the 169 ESS, Hill Air Force Base, UT, received its Federal Recognition on 27 April 1987 and was activated on 19 September 1987. On 8 December 1987, Major General Martin approved a Command reorganization which would posture the Command for the future and ensure consistency with Air Force guidelines. In 1987, Congress deleted funding for additional Rivet Joint aircraft. Torii Station home of the 6990th ESG's operations and logistics functions until 1986.

1988 - On 25 January 1988, the new Security Service Federal Credit Union building on Security Hill, Kelly Air Force Base, Texas, opened for business. The ground breaking was held on 1 June 1987, and the construction was completed on 22 January 1988. The Credit Union funded this building at the cost of $460,000. On 1 April 1988 ESC, USAFE, EUCOM, and USAEUR signed Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) for TREDS/ TRIGS management. The MOA established the TREDS/ TRIGS Director in charge of the effort to combine the two intelligence disciplines into a coordinated effort. It formed a Mission Development and Control Element (MDCE) composed of the operations officers of the 7451st Tactical Intelligence Squadron (TIS); the 6911 ESS; and Det Hahn, 66th Military Intelligence Brigade. In support of the Department of Defense (DoD) aggressive antismoking campaign to improve health and readiness of DoD personnel, on 1 April 1988, the ESC no-smoking policy went into effect for Buildings 2000, 2007, and AFCSC-- smoking permitted only in the Belvedere Picnic Area. On 15 April 1988 Major General Martin approved the HQ ESC reorganization recommendations and forwarded the accreditation package to HQ USAF/PR for approval-- HQ USAF approved the overall Command reorganization. HQ USAF authority to constitute the 690 ESW, 693 ESW, and 694 ESW was dated 21 June 1988; and approval for 695 ESW was dated 20 September 1988. On 18 May 1988 the Chief of Staff, USAF, approved a new mission for the AFEWC, and the first tasking to AFEWC began in June. The mission was in support of EC testing and acquisition. On 1 June 1988 the HQ ESC reorganization became effective. The structure of HQ ESC was refocused to concentrate on planning and programming for the mission needs of ESC's four divisions, two centers, and six operational, Air Force-controlled wings in terms of manpower, training, and equipment. The basic idea was for HQ ESC to function as a headquarters. On 1 June 1988 the ESC reorganization dissolved the Constant Web Program Office, but program management activities remained in ESC -- Constant Web data base production responsibilities were moved to AFEWC/CW and responsibility for Constant Web hardware and software acquisition was transferred to HQ ESC/SC. In July 1988 Air Force Secretary Aldridge announced a change to the combat exclusion policy for women in the Air Force. The revised policy opened assignments of women to Red Horse and mobile aerial port squadrons effective 8 June 1988. Additionally, the following aircraft were opened for assignment of women effective 1 July 1988: TR-1, U-2, TU-2, C-29 (flight check), and all EC-130 missions. At HQ USAF, Major General Martin accepted the 1987 Air Force Productivity Enhancement Award for professional excellence on 7 November 1988. The ESC success story was attributed to creative promotion schemes, program integration at all levels, and outstanding Air Force support of key initiatives. On 15 December 1988, the Deputy Secretary of Defense signed DoD Directive implementing the Civilian Intelligence Personnel Management System. This system was to enhance the Services' flexibility of managing the recruitment, retention, and compensation of civilian employees working in intelligence functions.

1989 - In March 1989 , ESC flight-tested the U-2R SENIOR SPAN system. In May 1989, HQ USAF approved the Gordon W. Sommers Outstanding Civilian of the Year award. On 26 May 1989, SENIOR SCOUT, a tactical airborne intelligence system designed to replace COMFY LEVI, made its first test flight. The first Flowing Pen (Comfy Levi) mission (CF916) was flown on 9 June 1989. On 12 June 1989, Major General (retired) Carl W. Stapleton, Commander of USAFSS from August 1969 until his retirement in February 1973, died. In August 1989, the ESC commander approved renaming the Security Hill picnic area in honor of General Stapleton. Conversion of ESC and JEWC civilian employees from competitive to the excepted service under the new Civilian Intelligence Personnel Management System (CIPMS) took place on 1 July 1989. Later, on 15 October 1989, the General Manager (GM) force converted to the General Schedule (GS) system. On 16 August 1989 Major General Gary W. O'Shaughnessy assumed command of ESC, replacing Major General Paul H. Martin who retired.

In October/November 1989 ESC demonstrated Tactical Information Broadcast Service (COMFY HARVEST). In November 1989 Brigadier General Paul L. Roberson presented the first ESC display to the USAF Museum--an AN/MSR-1 Communications Security monitoring van. The AN/MSR-1 system had been replaced by COMFY SABRE. The end of 1989 saw ESC play an active, on-the-scene role in Operation JUST CAUSE. The 6933 ESS was involved from beginning to end, and performed very successfully. Other ESC involvement included Electronic Warfare planning in the AFEWC, mission support by other ESC units, and staff support at HQ ESC. In terms of planning and execution, DoD officials proclaimed Operation JUST CAUSE the most successful military operation since World War II, and ESC people played a big part in that success. In December 1989, CSAF opened additional aircraft to women--the C-141, C-130, C-17, and the U-2/TR-1. Also in December 1989, the third U-2 was deployed to Osan AB, Republic of Korea. Under the A-76 Commercial Activities Program, the ESC Base Supply function would convert from a military/civilian operation to a civil service operation during 1989. However, implementation of the Most Efficient Organization for base supply support had to be extended to 1 April 1990.

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AIA in the 1990s

1990 - On 15 March 1990, the SENIOR SCOUT system was handed over to ESC. Then at 0737 hours on 16 March 1990, a new era of ESC airborne operations began when SENIOR SCOUT departed for Panama on its first operational deployment. On 17 May 1990, the Civilian Drug Testing Program officially started in ESC with the testing of five volunteers. On 25 May 1990, the 6903 ESG and Detachment 2, 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing, flew U-2R Olympic Game mission sortie number 5,000. On 1 July 1990, Mr. Dennis B. Richburg replaced Mr. Gordon W. Sommers as the advisor to the ESC commander. He later became the organization's Technical Director. Iraq invaded Kuwait on 2 August 1990 and President George Bush mobilized U.S. military forces for deployment to the Persian Gulf under Operation DESERT SHIELD. On 9 August 1990, the 6916 ESS arrived in Saudi Arabia with two RIVET JOINT aircraft and two backend crews to participate in Operation DESERT SHIELD.

On 11 August 1990, Colonel William C. Bender arrived in Riyadh, Saudia Arabia, to serve as ESC's first Task Force Director for DESERT SHIELD. On 11 August 1990, the 6948 ESS arrived in Riyadh, Saudia Arabia, to participate in Operation DESERT SHIELD. On 1 October 1990, the Headquarters 2100th Communications Group (CG) was relieved from assignment to the Air Force Communications Command (AFCC) and assigned to ESC as a result of the transfer of Critical Intelligence Communication (CRITICOMM) operations and maintenance (O&M) from AFCC to ESC.

The U-2 operations against Cuba from the 6947 ESS, Key West NAS, Fla, and OL BA, 6947 ESS, Patrick Air Force Base, Fla, ended on 1 November 1990, with the last mission flown on 31 October 1990. On 10 November 1990, the 6975th Electronic Security Squadron, Provisional, was designated, activated, and organized at Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On 13 March 1991, the command ended over 17 years of operations at Augsburg, Germany, with the inactivation of the 6913 ESS. During its history, the unit provided rapid radio relay, secure communications and command, control and communications countermeasures support to U.S. and allied forces. On 31 March 1991, the 6913 ESS at Augsburg Germany, was inactivated. On 25 April 1991, the 6919 ESS flew its last operational mission, closing out another chapter in the proud history of ESC airborne operations. The 6919 ESS was inactivated on 21 May 1991 at Sembach AB, Germany.

The last COMFY LEVI system was decommissioned on 1 July 1991. Major Generals James R. Clapper, Jr., AF/IN, and Gary W. O'Shaughnessy, ESC/CC, briefed Secretary of the Air Force Donald Rice on 16 July 1991 concerning the proposed Air Force Intelligence Command (AFIC) structure and implementation plans/time lines. The Secretary was pleased with the planning actions and structure and gave his approval to go-ahead with the formation of AFIC with a 1 October 1991 effective date. On 23 August 1991, ESC accepted the SENIOR TROUPE system as an operational asset and assigned it to the 6948 ESS for operation and support. On 19 September 1991, a formal retreat and closure ceremony was conducted at Berlin's Marienfelde, Germany, site, and keys to the site were turned over to the host air base group commander. The formal closure of Marienfelde came after 26 years of existence as one of the premier operations of the Command. Electronic Security Command was redesignated the Air Force Intelligence Command on 1 October 1991. On 1 October 1991 the Deputy Chief of Staff/ Operations, Collection Operations Division established a counter-drug operation function. The function was responsible for policy execution, and oversight A proud chapter in USAFSS and ESC history was closed out 13 November 1990 with the deactivation of the 6916 ESS at Hellikon AB, Greece. For almost 34 years, the men and women of the 6916 ESS flew in the Baltic and Black Seas, the deserts of Sudan and Egypt, the Mediterranean and Adriatic Seas, and the Persian Gulf. Operations from this location provided support during every momentous turn of history in the volatile Mediterranean--the 1967 and 1973 Arab- Israeli wars, Beirut, Gulf of Sidra, TWA Flight 847 hijacking, Achille Lauro, ELDORADO CANYON-and it was the first ESC unit in Saudia Arabia. 1991 1991 In February 1991, ESC became the first command in the Air Force, and within the intelligence community, to implement a standard set of computer security application programs designed specifically for the Computer Security Officer (CSO). On 1 March 1991, the Mediterranean RC-135 missions, historically flown from Hellenikon AB, began flying from NAS Souda Bay, Greece. ESC activated OL-RS, 6931 ESS at Souda Bay for this purpose. On 13 March 1991, a chapter of ESC history was closed with the inactivation of OL RH, 6988 ESS, thus ending the USAF Security Service/ ESC presence at Hellenikon AB, Greece, which began on 1 December 1968, and marking an end to ESC airborne activities in that country. August 1990--members of the 6948th ESS deploy to Saudi Arabia in support of Desert Shield. Mr. Dennis B. Richburg became advisor to the ESC commander on 1 July 1990. On 18 June, the 6949th Electronic Security Squadron accepted operational control of the COBRA BALL and COBRA EYE programs. On 1 July, Headquarters, 690th Electronic Security Group was inactivated at Templelhof Central Airport, Germany. On 1 August, the 6917th Electronic Security Group at San Vito, Italy, was inactivated. On 17 August, AFIC supported TASKFORCE Russia, a Department of the Army effort in support of a U.S./Russian Joint Commission on POW/MIAs. On 27 August, the 600th Electronic Security Squadron was activated at Langley Air Force Base, Virginia, to support the Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System (CARS). 1993 1993 On 26 January, the Communications, Computer Systems Requirements Processing Working Group was renamed Command, Control, Communications and Computer (C4) Group. On 22 February, the AFIC commander announced the end to compliance - oriented IG inspections and introduced Quality Force Assessment. On 15 March, the Secretary of Defense directed the Services to consolidate their intelligence commands/ agencies into a single intelligence element within each service. On 17 May, General Merrill A. McPeak officiated as Major General Kenneth A. Minihan assumed command of AFIC. management of collection activities associated with the "war on drugs." On 15 December 1991, the 6922 Electronic Security Squadron at Clark Air Base, Republic of the Philippines, was inactivated. On 24 January, General Merrill McPeak, Air Force Chief of Staff, announced the final phase in implementing the objective wing organization structure. On 20 February, Major General O'Shaughnessy selected "PRISM" to replace "COMFY" as the first word of the Command's nickname. On 13 April, AFIC held its first Communications Computer Architecture Workshop. Representatives from across the Air Force attended. On 20 April, the Secretary of the Air Force delegated AFIC the authority to disclose information on the characteristics and performance of key Russian and Chinese aerodynamic weapons and related systems. On 1 June, AFIC created the Architecture and Integration Division to develop a communications-computer systems architecture for the command. On 8 June, AFIC inactivated the 6985 ESS after more than 30 years of providing critical intelligence support to tactical and national customers. The unit stood on the leading edge of new roles in intelligence through the BURNING WIND, COBRA BALL, and COBRA EYE missions and they left a legacy of advancing technology as a means to accomplish the AFIC mission. According to Major General O'Shaughnessy, "The end of the cold war is a victory in which every military member can take pride, but the men and women of the 6985 ESS should take a special pride in the key role they played in achieving this victory." Major General Gary W. O'Shaughnessy accepts the new Air Force Intelligence Command guidon from Air Force chief of staff General Merrill A. McPeak during activation ceremonies at Kelly, Air Force Base, Texas on 17 October 1991. Then Major General Kenneth A. Minihan served as the first commander of the Air Intelligence Agency. On 1 June, Major General Gary W. O'Shaughnessy retired from the Air Force. 1 August 1993, AIA formed the Tactical Information Broadcast Service (TIBS) Special Management office with management responsibility for all DoD. On 10 September 1993, HQ Air Force Electronic Warfare Center was redesignated HQ Air Force Information Warfare Center. On 1 October 1993 AFIC was redesignated the Air Intelligence Agency, a field operating agency, under the Air Force Assistant Chief of Staff, Intelligence. On 1 October 1993, Major General Kenneth A. Minihan became the first AIA Commander. On 1 October 1993, The 67th Intelligence Wing was activated at Kelly Air Force, Texas. On 20 December 1993, the Operations Support Central, AIA's single point of contact for time sensitive intelligence, officially opened. ESC personnel from several units began supporting Desert Shield Operations in early August 1990. An RC-135 RIVET JOINT refuels over Saudi Arabia. ESC provided invaluable support on the ground and in the air during Operation Desert Storm. 1994 1994 On 1 April, Headquarters 696th Intelligence Group inactivated at Andrews Air Force Base, Md. On 1 June, Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency accepted responsibility for COBRA DANE from the Air Force Space Command. On 30 June, Headquarters 26th Intelligence Wing inactivated at Ramstein Air Base, Germany. On 1 July, The Air Force Cryptologic Office (AFCO) stood up at Fort George G. Meade, Md. On 1 September, the Air Intelligence Agency's Information Services Flight and Management Engineering Flight and the Intelligence Combat Operations Staff inactivated at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. On 15 September, the Joint Electronic Warfare Center was redesignated as the Joint Command and Control Warfare Center. On 30 September 1994, Vigilance Memorial Park, in front of HQ AIA, featuring a static EC-47 aircraft was dedicated. On 10 October 1994, the Air Force Cryptologic Support Center inactivated at Kelly Air Force Base, Texas. On 3 October 1994, Brigadier General John P. Casciano assumed command of AIA from Major General Kenneth A. Minihan. On 15 November 1994, the 39th Intelligence Squadron activated at Nellis Air Force Base, Calif. On 30 November, 1994, the 48th Intelligence Squadron activated at Beale Air Force Base, Calif. Members of AFIC's 6990th ESS, Kadena, Air Base, Japan, pose with an RC-135 Rivet Joint Aircraft--summer 1992. 1995 1995 On 23 February 1995, the 68th Intelligence Squadron at Brooks Air Force Base celebrated its 46th anniversary. It is the oldest unit at Brooks and one of the original four units in the Air Intelligence Agency. On 23 February 1995, members of the 6975th Intelligence Squadron completed their 1000th Rivet Joint mission in 54 months in support of Operations Desert Shield/Storm and Southern Watch. On 30 Mar 1995 after approximately 18 months of operation, the 67th Intelligence Wing quickly became the first and only truly worldwide Air Force intelligence organization. On 27 April 1995, Staff Sergeant Beth Yandow became the first female RC-135 Rivet Joint crew member to qualify as an airborne mission supervisor. On 23 June 1995, Brigadier General John Casciano was promoted to Major General in ceremonies at HQ AIA. On 30 August 1995, the 315th Training Squadron at Goodfellow Air Force Base, Texas, announced major alterations in intelligence officer training courses. More unit specific training and officer/enlisted interaction formed key elements in the change. Secretary of the Air Force, Dr. Sheila Widnall visited the Air Intelligence Agency and the Information Warfare Center on 22-23 September 1995 for mission briefings and current overview of the Agency's mission. She stressed the importance of exploiting the information domain. On 29 September 1995, the Air Intelligence Agency held a special remembrance ceremony on Security Hill to pay tribute to those who gave their lives in carrying out their unit's missions. On 11 October 1995, elements of the Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System completed their first year of support to Joint Task Force Southwest Asia. 1996 1996 Major General John P. Casciano relinquished command of the Air Intelligence Agency on 5 January 1996 to become the Air Force's Assistant Chief of Staff for Intelligence. On 5 January 1996, Brigadier General Michael V. Hayden assumed command of the Air Intelligence Agency. On 28 March 1996, Brigadier General Hayden pinned on his second star in ceremonies at Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency. In March 1996, Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency learned it had earned its fourth Air Force Organizational Excellence Award for exceptionally meritorious service from 1 October 1993 to 30 September 1995 for orchestrating the largest restructure of Air Force intelligence since 1947. Ground breaking ceremonies were held on 25 June 1996 for the new 67th Intelligence Wing Headquarters building. The estimated completion date for the structure is 1998. On 30 June 1996, the 23rd Intelligence Squadron inactivated at Key West Naval Air Station, Fla. Major General John P. Casciano assumed command of AIA on 3 October, 1994. The Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System of AIA's 10th Intelligence Squadron beside a U-2 on the Langley Air Base flightline-- 1995. The 33rd Intelligence Squadron, Howard Air Force Base, Panama inactivated on 30 June 1996. The average age of the enlisted is 31.4 years and 39.8 years for the officer force. As of 30 September 1996, the annual economic impact of the Air Intelligence Agency in the San Antonio area exceeded $224 million. During exercise Blue Flag 91-1 held at the USAF Battlestaff Training School at Hurlburt, Field, Florida, in December 1996, more than 800 people participated including 50 technicians from AIA. They comprised the information warfare support team and introduced for the first time Measurement and Signatures Intelligence to the exercise. 1997 1997 On 2 January 1997 AIA commander Major General Michael V. Hayden announced the implementation of "Global Engagement," the new direction for Air Force operations introduced earlier by Secretary of the Air Force Dr. Sheila Widnall. Under this program the Air Force would pursue six core competencies. AIA would be responsible for the information superiority core competency. On 15 January, Major General Hayden described the vision of his command becoming the air force leader in integrating and conducting information operations. In this vision AIA will be a full service agency focused on the complete gamut of informations operations, (gain, exploit, attack and defend (GEDA)). More than 50 AIA personnel supported Coalition/Green Flag 97-3 conducted during February and March 1997 at Nellis AFB, Nev. AIA supported RC-135 Rivet Joint and EC-130 Compass Call operations, conducted an Electronic Systems Security Assessment and performed other vital information operations functions. AIA participation tested successfully the Agency's ability to embed with the air campaign planning element and function as part of an integrated team at the operational level of war. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen visited AIA Headquarters on 27 February 1997, to receive briefings and orientation on information warfare and the new Information Warfare Battlelab. On 10 March 1999, Lieutenant Colonel Gerry Riley, AIA's chief of Plans and Requirements, announced that AIA was revitalizing its organizational structures to meet the needs the Agency would face in 2010. Colonel Alan Thomas, in ceremonies at Lackland Air Force Base's Medina Annex, activated the 543rd Intelligence Major General (later Lieutenant General) Michael V. Hayden took over as AIA commander on 5 January 1996. AIA personnel work closely with Air Force Speical Operations Command serving as Direct Support Operators aboard several aircraft, including the MH-53J Pave Low III. Intelligence collection operators at work at the Medina Regional SIGINT Operations Center (MRSOC), hosted by AIA's 93rd Intelligence Squadron. Group on 14 March 1997. The new group would provide command and control and computer and logistics support for the MRSOC. Colonel Thomas noted the activation of the 543rd was a significant step toward the creation of America's first Information Operations Wing. Air Force Chief of Staff General Ronald Fogleman opened the Air Force's Information Warfare Battlelab on Security Hill at Kelly AFB on 17 March 1997, thus christening the beginning of a new era in IW operations. On 31 March 1997, Major General Hayden explained that AIA was rapidly becoming the Air Force leader in integrating and conducting information operations and would be embedding AIA personnel into the organizations of operations customers such as Air Mobility Command, Air Force Material Command, Air Combat Command's 12th Air Force and others. Airman 2nd Class Archie Bourg, killed more than 38 years earlier, was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery on 2 April 1997. Bourg was one of 17 US crew members who lost their lives when their C-130 reconnaissance aircraft was shot down by Soviet MiG-17 jet fighters over Armenia on September 2, 1958. On 28-29 April 1997, Air Force commanders from the United States and 13 North Atlantic Treaty Organization countries visited the Air Intelligence Agency in San Antonio. They learned about information superiority during their stay at AIA. On 17 June 1997, the 22nd Intelligence Squadron, Fort Meade, Md., with service dating back to the United States Air Service of World War I celebrated its 80th anniversary in ceremonies conducted in part by retired Lieutenant General James R. Clapper, former Director of the Defense Intelligence Agency. Colonel Gary Harvey assumed command of the 67th Intelligence Wing at Kelly Air Force Base on 26 August 1997. During 4-6 September 1997, the 390th Intelligence Squadron Kadena Air Base, Japan, commemorated 30 years of airborne combat intelligence operations in the Pacific Theater. The unit's first mission focused on direct support of RC-135 Combat Apple operations in Southeast Asia during the Vietnam War. By the mid-1990s, Communications Security Monitoring gaveway to full-fledged multi-mode Electronic Security Systems Assessments (ESSA) operations. A member of AIA's 68th Intelligence Squadron, Brooks, AFB, TX conducts ESSA operations--circa 1994.from Al Kharj Air Base, and receive all communications support from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. On 30 January 1998, Brig. Gen. James Miller explained that as a result of AIA's participation in Blue Flag 98-1, tactics analysis, previously only evident in after action reports, took place during the course of the exercise. Blue Flag 98-1 proved the value of information operations to air operations. In this exercise AIA arranged to bring in live Tactical Information Broadcast Service feeds and associated analysts. Participants expressed amazement at the amount of information available from TIBS. The effort to embed AIA information operators in numbered air forces was proved during Blue Flag 98-1. On 31 January 1998, the first SENSOR GUARD prototype was shipped from AIA to the Air Force Material Command's Electronic Systems Center (ESC) at Hanscom, AFB Mass. The 68th Intelligence Squadron at Brooks AFB, Texas, recently became an Electronic Systems Security Analysis Central, Continental United States. The purpose of the initiative was to streamline operations and help leverage personnel reductions with technological advances. On 28 February 1998, Brigadier General Regner C. Rider, AIA vice commander explained that the Agency's participation in Global Engagement 97 involved an exercise aimed to AIA personnel also support airborne operations on the ground. Here a member of the 488th IS, RAF Mildenhall, England, transcribes information gathered during a RIVET JOINT mission. On 5 September 1997, Major General Michael V. Hayden departed AIA to become the Deputy Chief of Staff for the United Nations Command and US Forces Korea. On 5 September 1997, Brigadier General James E. Miller Jr., assumed command of the Air Intelligence Agency/Joint Command and Control Warfare Center during ceremonies at Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency. On 10 October 1997, the US Government signed an agreement with the Republic of Moldova, a former Soviet republic, to purchase 21 MiG-29 Fulcrum fighter aircraft and associated air-to-air weapons equipment. The Moldovan MiGs soon called the National Air and Space Intelligence Center home, after a trip from Markulesht, Air Base, Moldova to Wright- Patterson AFB Ohio by C-17. Colonel Gary Davis assumed command of the 690th Information Operations Group the Air Force's first such organization on 20 October 1997 at Kelly AFB, Texas. On 22 December 1997, Brig. Gen. James E. Miller Jr., called for the establishment of an information operations training program for USAF personnel to be taught at Hurlburt Field, Fla. General Miller explained, "our strategic goals related to gain, exploit, defend and attack operations mandate an aggressive, Agency-wide approach to designing, developing and delivering AIA-unique training." 1998 1998 By connecting an AT&T modem to a message system and another to a DSN line at the Medina Regional SIGINT Operations Center, Mr. Bill Band, TSgt Morgan Perkins and TSgt Tim Sheppard enabled the Air Force and the Department of Defense to save about $2.5 million a year in unnecessary charges. Because of this new communications link, brought on line in January 1998, the 4416th Intelligence Squadron was able to fly RC-135 RIVET JOINT sorties Brigadier General James E. Miller Jr., assumed command of AIA on 5 September 1997. Artist's concept of the new 67th Intelligence Wing Headquarters Building on Security Hill at Kelly AFB. The structure was scheduled for completion in 1998. the future. AIA's objective was to conduct warfare using anticipated technological advances that might exist in the year 2012. Sponsored by the USAF Chief of Staff, Global Engagement 97 was designed to highlight the contributions of air and space power in joint military operations in the 21st century. The exercise employed the concept of Information Conditions (INFOCONs.) On 17 March 1998, after one year of operation, the 820th Security Forces Group (SFG) claimed a busy first year. Its first real-world action came in support of Bright Star and Air Expeditionary Force V at Sheikh Isa Air Base, Bahrain. Embedded AIA assets in the 820 SFG provided threat assessments and aided in the development of the Force Protection Plan. The 316th Training Squadron at Goodfellow AFB, Texas graduated 12 students from its first Serbo-Croatian language course on 1 April 1998. The 80-day course taught common core knowledge and skills cryptologic linguists require. Also in April 1998, at the 123rd Intelligence Squadron at Little Rock AFB, Arkansas one of two Air National Guard in AIA, helped significantly in America's drug war. The unit processed nearly 90 percent of all C-26 aerial photographs in the US for the identification of drug fields. On 1 April 1998, Det 4, 67 Intelligence Group, moved to Headquarters Air Mobility Command, Scott AFB, Ill. The detachment became the newest weapon in the Air Force information operations arsenal. Since activation in August 1997, the detachment has used information operations to exploit the vulnerabilities of adversaries while building a protective wall around AMC communications and information systems. The Contingency Airborne Reconnaissance System Deployable Ground Station-2 recently completed supporting its 400th CREEK TORCH mission. Comprised of Air Combat Command's 13th Intelligence Squadron and AIA's 48th IS, DGS-2 supports the European Commands' intelligence collection requirements, and protects NATO Stabilization Forces in the Balkans. Colonel Harold Beatty assumed command of the Air Force Technical Applications Center, an administratively supported unit of AIA, in ceremonies at Patrick AFB, Florida on 15 July 1998. On 15 July 1998, Major General John Casciano, Director of Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance on the Air Staff, joined Colonel Craig Koziol, 17th Training Group Commander, in dedicating a MiG-29 Fulcrum Static Display Aircraft at Goodfellow AFB, Texas. The United States purchased the MiG-29 from Moldova. The group also received a MiG-23 Flogger G, an SA-4 surface-to-air missile launcher with two missiles and other assorted equipment. The USAF Chief of Staff approved the first information operations doctrine AFDD. The doctrine, released on 5 August 1998, defines information operations as consisting of two pillars: information in warfare and information warfare. IIW encompasses all intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, weather, precision navigation and dissemination activities. IW encompasses the offensive and defensive aspects of psychological operations, electronic warfare, deception, destruction, and information defend and attack activities. Major General John R. Baker served as AIA commander from 17 August 1998-31 January 2000. On 17 August 1998, Brigadier General John R. Baker assumed command of the Air Intelligence Agency and Joint Command and Control Warfare Center in ceremonies at Kelly AFB. After relinquishing command of the Agency, Brig. Gen. James E. Miller retired from the Air Force after more than 29 years of service. On 17 August 1998, command responsibility for the Joint Command and Control Warfare Center transitioned to the United States Atlantic Command, Norfolk, Virginia. The JC2WC provides direct command and control warfare support to operational commanders around the world. Effective 2 October 1998, Mr. Dennis B. Richburg, AIA Technical Director, retired after a civilian and military career that spanned nearly four decades. During the month of November 1998, AIA commander Brig. Gen. John R. Baker and his wife Judy, received the General and Mrs. Jerome F. O'Malley award for their work Inside the Agency's Information Operations Central (IOC), at Kelly AFB, TX. on-base and in the community during General Baker 's tenure as commander of PACAF's 18th Wing, Kadena Air Base, Japan. Mr. Dennis H. Alvey assumed duties as Executive Director of AIA in January 1999, replacing Mr. Dennis B. Richburg who retired in 1998. An Air Force Special Operations Command EC-130E Commando Solo aircraft visited Kelly AFB, and highlighted the Agency's Psychological Operations mission. After almost 50 years of service the Technical Operations Division at McClellan AFB, Cailfornia closed its doors and inactivated effective 9 April 1999. The division, part of AIA's Administratively supported unit, under the Air Force Technical Applications Center, had been that organizations largest unit. Mr. Robert P. Egger ended half a century of service to the United States when he retired as AIA's Chief of Security on 10 September 1999. Mr. Dennis H. Alvey became AIA Executive Director in January 1999. On 17 September 1999, Maj. Gen. John R. Baker presided over ceremonies at AIA on national POW/MIA Recognition Day in honor of POW/MIAs whose contributions were honored and highlighted. Maj. Gen. John Baker, AIA commander, opened the AIA Heritage Center on 24 September 1999. The Heritage Center, which featured several different displays portraying the history of intelligence and the legacy of AIA, was the only facility of its type in the Air Force dedicated to the memory of Air Intelligence. In December 1999, Headquarters AIA's Psychological Operations Division completed its second year of operations with an enlarged staff of nine, augmented by Air Force Reserve Officers and the designation as the Air Force PSYOP Center of Excellence. Major General Bruce A. Wright took over as AIA commander on 31 January 2000. He was promoted to Major General on 21 April 2000.

AIA in the 2000s

2000 - On 14 January 2000, ceremonies were held in front of building 2000 dedicating two Vietnam era aircraft, an O-2 Skymaster Psychological Operations Aircraft and an AQM- 34L Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) Reconnaissance Drone. Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force Frederick J. Finch joined AIA commander Maj. Gen. John Baker in the dedication ceremonies. On 31 January 2000, Brigadier General Bruce A. Wright formerly the deputy director for information operations on the Joint Chiefs of Staff, assumed command of AIA from Maj. Gen. John R. Baker. On 21 April 2000, Brigadier General Bruce A. Wright pinned on his second star in ceremonies at Headquarters Air Intelligence Agency.

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